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The severe form of the disease caused by the FI-RSV has been attributed to the strong T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response, and RGE has been shown to mitigate such Th2 responses by enhancing the T-helper type 1 (Th1) response in F1-RSV immunized mice which have Th2-dominant immune response intrinsically . Thus, RGE-treated mice that were immunized with FI-RSV showed improved clinical outcomes via an increase in the immunoglobulin G2a (Ig G2a) antibodies level and interferon (IFN)-γ production accompanied by a decrease in IL-4 production and weight loss after RSV infection . Moreover, RGE treatment improved clinical outcomes by preventing weight loss and increasing viral clearance and IFN-γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage cells in mice , . RGE also increased the numbers of CD11c dendritic cells, IFN-γ-secreting CD8 T cells, and CD4 T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids , . Taken together, these studies demonstrate that ginseng has immunomodulatory and antiviral effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, and further studies are required to elucidate the underlying immunoregulatory and antiviral mechanisms at the molecular level. Rhinovirus is transmitted from person-to-person via contact or aerosol and causes upper respiratory illness .
The selective antiviral activities of panaxatriol-type ginsenosides were also found in the case of coxsackievirus, as described below. There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal disease nearly every winter, whereas the influenza C virus causes mild respiratory disease. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus.